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Facility Construction

The University of Michigan has funded the expansion of the High Field Science laser laboratories to accommodate the ZEUS facility. The cleanroom (ISO 7) that houses the laser system and laser beam lines has been substantially extended. The building renovation added two new target areas (TA1 and TA2), a new experimental control room, new target preparation facilities and a new laser control room.  Below are some photos of the building renovation and the ZEUS facility construction.

Building Renovation

Explore through the photo slideshow below.

The old laboratories were completely removed to make space for the extended laser clean room, new ZEUS target areas experimental control room and target facilities.

The old laboratories were completely removed to make space for the extended laser clean room, new ZEUS target areas experimental control room and target facilities.

March 2021

Cement was poured into the building for the thick radiation shielding walls and floor.

Cement was poured into the building for the thick radiation shielding walls and floor.

May 2021

The radiation shielding was extended to the full height of the building to protect the upper level offices.

The radiation shielding was extended to the full height of the building to protect the upper level offices.

August 2021

The new laser cleanroom (not yet clean!).

The new laser cleanroom (not yet clean!).

September 2021

The target areas have thick, rolling shielding doors that close before laser shots.

The target areas have thick, rolling shielding doors that close before laser shots.

September 2021

The new Target Area 1. The window in the shielding wall will allow a long focal length focusing geometry.

The new Target Area 1. The window in the shielding wall will allow a long focal length focusing geometry.

September 2021

The new corridor running alongside the experimental control room.

The new corridor running alongside the experimental control room.

October 2021

The experimental control room – new furniture to come.

The experimental control room – new furniture to come.

October 2021

The building renovation is completed.

The building renovation is completed.

November 18, 2021

Installation

Explore through the photo slideshow below.

The installation of the Amplitude Pulsar front end.

The installation of the Amplitude Pulsar front end.

November 2021

Optical tables for the ZEUS amplifiers installed in a clean room.

Optical tables for the ZEUS amplifiers installed in a clean room.

November 2021

500 TW experimental chamber in the Target Area 2.

500 TW experimental chamber in the Target Area 2.

December 2021

Two ATLAS 100 Nd:glass pump lasers designed to pump the final ZEUS amplifier installed in a clean room.

Two ATLAS 100 Nd:glass pump lasers designed to pump the final ZEUS amplifier installed in a clean room.

December 21

Clean room with a 500 TW compressor vacuum vessel and a beam line going into the ZEUS Target Area 3.

Clean room with a 500 TW compressor vacuum vessel and a beam line going into the ZEUS Target Area 3.

January 2022

ZEUS switch yard #2 vacuum vessel in the lab

ZEUS switch yard #2 vacuum vessel in the lab

April 2022

3PW compressor and switchyard #1 vacuum vessels in the ZEUS facility clean room.

3PW compressor and switchyard #1 vacuum vessels in the ZEUS facility clean room.

May 2022

Graduate Student, Joshua Latham, cleaning the 3 PW compressor and switchyard #1 vacuum vessel.

Graduate Student, Joshua Latham, cleaning the 3 PW compressor and switchyard #1 vacuum vessel.

May 2022

Assembled and vacuum leak tested the ZEUS 3 PW compressor and switchyard #1 .

Assembled and vacuum leak tested the ZEUS 3 PW compressor and switchyard #1 .

June 2022

The switchyard #3 vacuum vessels, which holds a long (~20 meters) focusing optics for laser wakefield experiments in the ZEUS facility clean room.

The switchyard #3 vacuum vessels, which holds a long (~20 meters) focusing optics for laser wakefield experiments in the ZEUS facility clean room.

June 2022

Cleaning of the  switchyard #3 vacuum vessels.

Cleaning of the switchyard #3 vacuum vessels.

July 2022

Optical tables enclosure installation is completed.

Optical tables enclosure installation is completed.

July 2022

A 12 inch diameter vacuum deformable mirror, controller and wavefront sensor in the ZEUS clean room.

A 12 inch diameter vacuum deformable mirror, controller and wavefront sensor in the ZEUS clean room.

July 2022

Radiation Shielding

Prof. Igor Jovanovic has led the design of radiation shielding for the new ZEUS target areas using FLUKA and Geant4 codes.

All radiation-generating facilities have a legal obligation to protect their personnel from ionizing radiation. Each facility has different requirements that must be addressed by the shielding, so specific designs need to be developed and ultimately implemented. For GeV-level accelerators, several meters of radiation shielding or a beam dump combined with radiation shielding are required to reduce the radiation dose to a safe level. We developed a facility design suited for shielding of the gas target area in ZEUS, which includes an electron beam dump. The overall design goal is to limit the hourly dose to 0.02 mSv/h (2 mrem/h) and the annual dose to 1 mSv/year (100 mrem/year), according to the radiation safety regulations. The facility design is illustrated in Fig. 1, which does not display the local shielding (beam dump).

Figure 1: The overall facility radiation shielding design.

Simulations

We conducted Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA and validated them in Geant4. An additional validation was performed with the design of similar facility. The simulation geometry is shown in Fig. 2 and includes the optimization of the composition, thickness, and width of stacked layers of the beam dump. Representative results for the prompt dose are shown in Fig. 3. Also important to the facility design is the longer-term activation, for which the simulation was also carried out (Fig. 4).

Figure 2: (a) Simulation geometry (top view) in the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. (b) Different stacking methods are used to test the effectiveness of the radiation shielding. (c) The same simulation geometry (side view) is also defined in the Geant4 for comparison.

Figure 3: Comparison of the ambient dose equivalent between the (a) three-layer and (b) five-layer stacking configuration with the HD concrete and iron stacking. The difference between the two configurations is shown in (c) and (d).

Figure 4: Example simulation of the activation in ZEUS gas target area.

Solid Target Area Shielding Design

The solid target area is another major experimental area of ZEUS for which the shielding design is necessary. Preliminary designs have been developed to address the challenging environment of higher beam divergence than in the gas target area and the multi-particle environment that requires a combination of shielding materials and geometries. Preliminary FLUKA modeling is illustrated in Fig. 5.

Read more in the publication:

T. Shi, D. Sun, I. Jovanovic, G. Kalinchenko, K. Krushelnick, C. C. Kuranz, A. Maksimchuk, J. Nees, A. G. R. Thomas, and L. Willingale, “Optimization of the Electron Beam Dump for a GeV-class Laser Electron Accelerator,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes 176, 109853 (2021).

Figure 5: Dose due to protons (top) and electrons (bottom) in the solid target area without shielding.